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Doll Categories Gutta-Percha - Caoutchouc - Vulcanized Rubber - Rubber Dolls 1849+

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Shop for Rubber, Gutta Percha dolls












Caoutchouc, India rubber or gum was used for centuries to make dolls or parts of dolls, among other items. Caoutchouc, rubber or gum was Goodyear vulcanized rubber doll head USAmixed with other materials such as gutta-percha from the Para rubber tree of South America, the material is then colored and heated (vulcanized), to produce a material that would hold it's shape. 


The history and invention of vulcanizing rubber belongs to Robert Haering with Charles Goodyear (founder of Goodyear Rubber Company 1835-1890), both of New haven, Connecticut, USA.  Goodyear / New York Rubber Company, rubber doll heads paper box label states; Charles Goodyear's Patent April 25, 1848 and extended 1862.  Vulcanized rubber head dolls have been found with paper labels stating; Charles Goodyear, Pat. May 6, 1851 EXT. 1865.  A patent was also issued; No. 9,668 on April 12, 1853 in the USA and a British patent filed in 1855 for molded toys made of India rubber and gutta-percha.


Early antique gutta-percha doll makers include 1849 John Edward Payne (UK), 1855 John Henry Johnson of Glasgow, Scotland made India rubber and gutta percha dolls and other items, 1865 the Lang & Company (US) and 1852-1880 Jean L. H. Arnaud (FR), obtained patents of fashion Lady wood bodied dolls, covered in vulcanized rubber and rubber joints.


Early antique rubber vulcanized doll makers; Goodyear Rubber Company (US), India Rubber Comb Company, Benjamin F. Lee Company, New York Rubber Company (used Goodyear Patent March 28, 1854), Newark India Rubber Company, English doll makers; Metropolitan India Rubber Company and the Vulcanite Company.


1856-1925 Phoenix of Germany made rubber dolls.  1860-1876 Baculard (1870s Favier joined the firm) of Paris, France, patented using gutta-percha for making doll heads.  In 1875 both Ansil W. Monroe and Wesley Miller (USA) obtained patents for making rubber dolls. In the late 1870s Jne, Bru & Cie, Jules Nicholas Steiner and Derolland were all making rubber bébés in France.


Doll makers in Austria, England, France, Germany, Hungary and other European countries, also made rubber dolls. 


Additional Rubber Doll Makers 1873+

1873+ Rheinische Gummi und Celluloid-Fabrik GER, Rhenania Rubber and Celluloid Factory

1880-1917 A.S. Cartwright USA, made rubber dolls and accessories

1884-1898 E. Ridley & Sons USA, distributed rubber dolls

1890-1904 Louis Delachal FRA, doll mark LD, doll name; Bébé Caoutchouc - rubber baby dolls

1890s Matz Dittmer GER, made rubber dolls

1901 Montgomery Ward USA, department store advertised All Rubber dolls

1910 Butler Brothers USA, importer and distributer All Rubber dolls and during World War I

1914-1966 Natural Doll Company USA, made rubber dolls

1914-1920s Société Française de Jouets & de Caoutchouc Bébés, FRA made rubber dolls

1915-1917 Mechanical Rubber Company USA, made rubber dolls, marked M on a shield

1915-1930 Thomas Salter LTD. UK, produced India rubber dolls

1916-1923 Faultless Rubber Company USA, made rubber dolls; Sweetie doll 3 3/4" tall, all red or tan rubber

1919-1939 Regal Doll Corporation USA, advertised rubber dolls

1920s some composition dolls had rubber joints, hands or limbs; arms or legs

1920s-1930s T. Eaton Company of Canada, advertised rubber dolls as well as many other types

1921-1926 Eccles of England, made rubber dolls with molded clothes

1921-1930 E. L. Sommers & Company USA, made rubber doll that crawl or dolls that removes its hat

1922-1964+ Sieberling Latex Products, USA made rubber or latex dolls, they competed with Sun  Rubber

1924-1925 Amberg & Hergershausen GER, made rubber or composition dolls with mama voice box's

1924-1927 Mittelland Gummiwerke GER, made rubber dolls

1924-1930 Strasserpuppen Werkstatten (Strasser Doll Workshop) of Berlin, Germany, workshop of

    Hedwig Maria Strasser Huldschinsky, made lifelike art portrait dolls with rubber heads that were advertised as washable 12-23 1/2" tall named; 1924 Babs, Gerda, Hansi, Maria, 1926 Buby, Plumsi dolls

1926-1930s Schavoir Rubber Company USA, made red and white rubber dolls

1928 Bing Brothers of Germany and USA, distributed world wide rubber dolls



In the 1950s rubber resurfaces in a strong way as a doll makers material for dolls, squeak toys and more.  Made by Arrow Rubber & Plastics, Dreamland Creations, Irwin & Company, Rempel Manufacturing of Canada, Sanitoy, Sun Rubber Company, Tilco International (Tilly Toy of Canada), Viceroy Manufacturing of Canada (copies of Sun Rubber dolls) - plus others.



Additional American Rubber Dolls Identified


1933-1950s Effanbee Dy-Dee Baby doll, 9-24" tall, earliest dolls are made with a hard rubber head, later dolls were made of hard plastic, blue, brown or green sleep eyes, real upper lashes, single stroke brow, painted lower lashes, open mouth, applied soft rubber ears, molded painted hair, soft rubber body jointed at the neck, arms and hips, First drink and wet baby doll, came dressed in cotton flannel diaper, doll marked on back  DyDee Baby U.S. Pat. 1-857-485 England-880-060 France-723-980 Germany-585-647 Other Pat. Pending.

1933+ Effanbee Dy-Dee Baby doll 11"

1933+ F & B Dy-Dee Baby doll 11"

1936 Ideal Suzette an I-De-Lite Doll or Lifetime Doll, 12, 14, 16" tall, Shirley Temple look a like doll without the dimples, all Idenite a hard rubber material (much heavier than composition) jointed at the neck, shoulders and hips, celluloid sleep eyes, open mouth with two upper teeth, has molded hair under the mohair wig, doll is unmarked.

1936 Ideal Suzette, I-De-Lite, Lifetime doll, 16"

1936 Ideal Suzette, I-De-Lite, or Lifetime Doll, 16"

1936-1938 American Character Sally Jane doll or Paratex Girl doll, 15, 17, 19 & 22" tall, a Shirley Temple look-a-like, all paratex rubber and composition jointed body, curly human hair wig, sleep hazel eyes, open smiling mouth with six upper teeth, dimples, wore an organdy dress, doll is unmarked.

Photo courtesy of Nativelady

AC 1936 Sally Jane doll, 15"

1936 AC Sally Jane doll, 15"


1940s Arrow Rubber & Plastics Playful Baby doll, 11" tall all rubber with molded curly short hair, painted eyes, open nurser mouth, rubber arms with bent elbows, doll mark 42 backwards.


Photo N/A

Playful Baby Doll, 11"

1949 Irwin & Company Baby doll, 14" tall, jointed rubber body and limbs with lots of detail; wrinkles and folds, softer rubber head with molded painted hair, painted or sleep eyes, open nurser mouth.  Irwin is probably best know for their small or doll house sized, hard plastic dolls, so this one is quite interesting.  Doll mark on back of neck NON-INFLAM. Doll mark on back Made by IRWIN in USA (in a circle).

1949 Irwin Baby doll, 14"


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