Caoutchouc, India rubber or gum was used for centuries to make dolls or parts of
dolls, among other items. Caoutchouc, rubber or gum was
mixed with other
materials such as gutta-percha from the Para rubber tree of South America, the
material is then colored and heated (vulcanized), to produce a material that
would hold it's shape.
The history and invention of vulcanizing rubber belongs to
Robert Haering with Charles Goodyear (founder of Goodyear Rubber Company
1835-1890), both of New haven, Connecticut, USA. Goodyear / New York Rubber
Company, rubber doll heads paper box label states; Charles Goodyear's Patent April
25, 1848 and extended 1862. Vulcanized rubber head dolls
have been found with paper labels stating; Charles Goodyear, Pat. May 6, 1851
EXT. 1865. A patent was also issued; No. 9,668 on April 12, 1853
in the USA and a British patent filed in 1855 for molded toys made of
India rubber and gutta-percha.
Early antique gutta-percha doll makers include 1849
John Edward Payne (UK), 1855 John
Henry Johnson of Glasgow, Scotland made India rubber and gutta percha dolls
and other items, 1865
the Lang & Company (US) and 1852-1880
Jean L. H. Arnaud (FR), obtained patents of
fashion Lady wood bodied dolls, covered in vulcanized rubber and rubber joints.
Early antique rubber vulcanized doll makers; Goodyear Rubber Company (US), India Rubber Comb Company, Benjamin F. Lee Company, New York Rubber Company (used Goodyear
Patent March 28, 1854), Newark India Rubber Company,
English doll makers; Metropolitan India Rubber Company and the
1856-1925 Phoenix of Germany made rubber dolls. 1860-1876
Baculard (1870s Favier joined the firm) of Paris, France, patented
using gutta-percha for making doll heads. In
1875 both Ansil W. Monroe and
Wesley Miller (USA) obtained patents for making rubber
dolls. In the late 1870s Jne, Bru & Cie,
Jules Nicholas Steiner and
Derolland were all making rubber bébés in France.
Doll makers in
Austria, England, France, Germany, Hungary and other European countries, also made rubber
Additional Rubber Doll Makers 1873+
Rheinische Gummi und
Celluloid-Fabrik GER, Rhenania Rubber and Celluloid Factory
1880-1917 A.S. Cartwright USA, made rubber dolls and accessories
1884-1898 E. Ridley & Sons USA, distributed rubber dolls
1890-1904 Louis Delachal FRA, doll mark LD, doll name; Bébé Caoutchouc -
rubber baby dolls
1890s Matz Dittmer GER, made rubber dolls
1901 Montgomery Ward USA, department store advertised All
1910 Butler Brothers
importer and distributer All Rubber dolls and during World War I
1914-1966 Natural Doll Company USA, made rubber
1914-1920s Societe Française de Jouets & de Caoutchouc Bébés,
FRA made rubber dolls
1915-1917 Mechanical Rubber Company USA,
made rubber dolls, marked M on a shield
1915-1930 Thomas Salter LTD. UK, produced India rubber dolls
1916-1923 Faultless Rubber Company
made rubber dolls; Sweetie doll 3 3/4" tall, all red or tan rubber
1919-1939 Regal Doll Corporation
advertised rubber dolls
1920s some composition dolls had rubber joints,
hands or limbs; arms or legs
1920s-1930s T. Eaton Company of Canada,
advertised rubber dolls as well as many other types
1921-1926 Eccles of
England, made rubber dolls with molded clothes
1921-1930 E. L. Sommers & Company USA, made
rubber doll that crawl or dolls that removes its hat
1924-1925 Amberg & Hergershausen GER, made rubber or composition dolls with mama voice box's
1924-1927 Mittelland Gummiwerke
GER, made rubber dolls
Strasserpuppen Werkstatten (Strasser Doll Workshop) of Berlin, Germany,
Hedwig Maria Strasser Huldschinsky, made lifelike art portrait dolls
with rubber heads that were advertised as
washable 12-23 1/2"
tall named; 1924 Babs, Gerda, Hansi, Maria, 1926 Buby, Plumsi dolls
1926-1930s Schavoir Rubber Company USA, made red and white rubber dolls
1928 Bing Brothers
of Germany and USA, distributed world wide rubber dolls
the 1950s rubber resurfaces in a strong way as a doll makers material for;
dolls, squeak toys and more,
made by; Arrow Plastics, Irwin
& Company, Rempel Manufacturing of Canada, Sanitoy, Sun Rubber Co., Tilco International (Tilly Toy of Canada), Viceroy Manufacturing of Canada (copies of Sun Rubber dolls) - plus
Additional American Rubber Dolls Identified
1933-1950s Effanbee Dy-Dee Baby doll,
9-24" tall, earliest dolls are made with a hard
rubber head, later dolls were made of hard plastic,
blue, brown or green sleep eyes, real upper lashes, single stroke
brow, painted lower lashes, open mouth, applied soft rubber
ears, molded painted hair, soft rubber body jointed at the neck, arms
and hips, First drink and wet baby doll, came dressed in cotton
flannel diaper, doll marked on back DyDee Baby U.S. Pat. 1-857-485 England-880-060 France-723-980 Germany-585-647 Other Pat. Pending.
1933+ F & B Dy-Dee Baby doll 11"
Ideal Suzette an I-De-Lite Doll or Lifetime Doll, 12, 14, 16" tall, Shirley Temple look a like doll without the dimples, all Idenite a hard rubber material (much heavier than composition) jointed at the neck, shoulders and hips, celluloid sleep eyes, open mouth with two upper teeth, has molded hair under the mohair wig,
doll is unmarked.
1936 Ideal Suzette, I-De-Lite, or
Lifetime Doll, 16"
1936-1938 American Character Sally Jane doll or Paratex Girl doll, 15, 17, 19 & 22" tall,
a Shirley Temple look-a-like, all paratex rubber and composition jointed body, curly human hair wig, sleep hazel eyes, open smiling mouth with six upper teeth, dimples, wore an organdy dress,
doll is unmarked.
Photo courtesy of Nativelady
AC Sally Jane doll, 15"
1940s Arrow Rubber & Plastics Playful
Baby doll, 11" tall all
rubber with molded curly short hair, painted eyes, open nurser mouth, rubber arms with bent elbows, doll mark 42 backwards.
1949 Irwin & Company Baby doll, 14" tall, jointed rubber body and
limbs with lots of detail; wrinkles and folds, softer rubber head with molded painted hair, painted or sleep eyes, open nurser mouth. Irwin is probably
best know for their small or doll house sized, hard plastic dolls, so this one is quite interesting. Doll mark on back of neck NON-INFLAM. Doll mark on back Made by IRWIN in USA (in a circle).
Irwin Baby doll, 14"